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THUNDER BAY GREEN SPACES

REGIONAL GREEN SPACES

GEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

FORESTS OF NW ONTARIO

CONTACTS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

   
Glossaries and Explanations
Green Spaces of Northwestern Ontario


A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    K    L    M    O    P    R    S    T    V   


A
Alluvial sediments of gravel, sand, silt or clay deposited by water.
B
Bird's foot delta triangular deposit of fine sediment at the mouth of a large river.
C
Cobble a water rounded stone.
D
Delta low, nearly flat body of sediment deposited when the flow of a river is slowed as it enters a lake or ocean.
Diabase a medium grained mafic volcanic rock.
Dike a volcanic intrusive rock perpendicular to dominant stratigraphy.
Drumlin an elongated hill formed by glacial till material deposited in the direction of the glacier that formed it.
Dune Complex finely grained sandy landscape feature often on a shoreline, formed by wind.
E
Erratic a large rock deposited by a glacier.
Esker an elongated ridge deposited by meltwater in a glacial channel.
F
Fen a wet peatland with moderate pH, influenced by groundwater, where characteristic plants are sedges, willows, larch and aquatic mosses.
Fluvial Fluvial - formed by the action of flowing water.
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G
Gabbro a course-textured igneous rock.
Glacial climatic zone that produced continuous ice up to .3 km thick, shaping landscapes as early as 2.7 billion years ago.
Ground Moraine till deposited beneath a glacier.
Gunflint Formation a geological formation primarily comprised of iron rich sediments with some volcanics, occurring from Michigan to Thunder Bay, formed prior to 1.1 billion years ago and used as a source for tool making material.
H
ha abbreviation for hectare - 100 by 100 metres square (approx. 2.5 acres).
Hibernaculum shelter of a hibernating animal.
K
Kame a terrace-like accumulation of sand or gravel deposited at or near the end of a glacier by meltwater streams.
Kettle hole formed from melting buried ice blocks in glacial deposits.
Krumholz Effect stunted growth of trees caused by extreme climatic conditions.
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L
Lucustrine sediments deposited during the late glacial and early postglacial period as silt and clay.
M
Marsh an area of low wet land which is covered by grasses.
Mesa a butte; a flat-topped erosional feature, with diabase caps in the Lakehead region.
Metasedimentary Metasedimentary - sedimentary rock that has been changed by heat or pressure.
Moraine a surface deposit of gravels forming usually sinuous double sided ridges; denotes the former outer edges of ice sheets.
O
Osler Group dominated by a sequence of basaltic lava flows and located along Black Bay penisula extending from Edward Island west to Copper Island east.
Outwash Plain flood plain formed by streams drawing from the front of a glacier.
Oxbow Lake lake formed when a u-shaped bend or "meander" is cut off from a river channel.
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P
Precambrian all time prior to 570 million years ago.
Proterozoic a time period roughly 2.7 billion to 570 million years ago.
R
Raised Beach a stranded former lake shore.
River Terrace remnants of flood plain formed when a river cuts through sediments. Renewed water flow will produce another terrace below the level of the previous one.
Rove Formation series of sedimentary rock deposited in the mid Proterozoic; this slate material underlays a significant portion of the diabase caps of the Nor’Westers.
Rossport Formation late Precambrian sedimentary rock deposited as mudstone north of Lake Superior.
S
Sandspit long, narrow sandbar created by current flowing past a point of land that protrudes from the main land.
Sedimentary rocks formed when igneous rocks are eroded and laid down as sediment under a sea (shale, sandstone).
Sedimentary rock layered mounds of rock formed mainly of material deposited by water, wind or ice.
Sibley Group extends from the Sibley penisula in the west to the Channel Islands in the east and contains red sandstone with irregular banding (1.4 to 1.3 billion years old) .
Sill a volcanic intrusive rock formed parallel to the dominant statigraphy.
Spillway channel for reservoir overflow.
Stromatolite Precambrian fossils formed by mats or clumps of algae that trapped sediment.
T
Talus an accumulation of large rock fragments resting at the base of a cliff or steep slope.
Terminal Moraine long ridge or hill produced by concentrated glacial deposition along the margin of a glacier.
Till rock material released from a moving glacier.
V
Volcanic a rock crystalized from molten lava.

GLOSSARIES OF BOREAL FOREST PLANTS
Terminology | Pictorial


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