Club Lichens/Cup Lichens
General - short, hollow vertical projections growing in small patches; varied shapes, from cup-shaped to narrowly pointed, generally unbranched or sparsely branched; small scale-like squamules usually surround the base of the podetia; colour varies from yellow to green to grey, the fruiting structures on the podetia are usually blackish or red.
Found in small patches on rotting wood, tree bark, mineral soil and humus; very drought resistant, common in dry, exposed locations. Overall, they occur on a wide range of substrates in a variety of environments throughout Northwestern Ontario's boreal region; circumpolar.
Many species of Cladonia are found throughout Northwestern Ontario; they include C. coniocraea, C. gracilis, C. crispata and C. unicalis. As a highly variable and diverse genus, they cannot be easily separated with certainty in the field, but they are easily identified using chemical tests.
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