Tree Species of the World's Boreal Forests

Herbs, Shrubs and Other Plants

Terminology | Pictorial

Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas Fir
Pinaceae (Pine Family)

A large to very large tree with narrow, pointed crown, growing to a height of 24 - 61 m and a diameter of 0.6-1.5 m; often much larger.

Douglas Fir Description

Distinguishing Features - Needles: evergreen; spreading mostly in double rows, 2 - 3 cm long, flattened, mostly rounded at tip, flexible; dark yellow-green or blue-green; very short, twisted leafstalks. Bark: reddish-brown, very thick, deeply furrowed into broad ridges; often corky. Twigs: orange, turning brown; slender, hairy, ending in dark red, conical, pointed, scaly, hairless bud. Cones: 5 - 9 cm long; narrowly egg-shaped, light brown, short-stalked; with many thin, rounded cone-scales each above a long, protruding, three-pointed bract; paired, long-winged seeds.


From central British Columbia south along Pacific Coast to central California; also in Rocky Mountains to Arizona; forms vast forests on moist, well-drained or rocky soils; often in pure stands or mixed coniferous forests.


The Douglas Fir is one of the world's most important timber species. It ranks first in the United States in total volume of timber, in lumber production, and in production of veneer for plywood.

Return to Top of Page

Home | Forest Capital of Canada | About Our Website |
Ontario's North (West) Forest | Boreal Forests of the World | North (West) Forest Industry |
World Links and Resources | "Forest Finder" Search Engine | Educational Resources |
What's Happening | Contacts | Site Map |